Government of Sudan’s Declaration of a Cessation of Hostilities

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Press Statement

John Kirby
Assistant Secretary and Department Spokesperson, Bureau of Public Affairs

Washington, DC

June 21, 2016

The United States welcomes the Government of Sudan’s declaration of a unilateral cessation of hostilities in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile. We find this an important and welcome step towards a peaceful resolution to conflict in those states, which we would like to see extended to the Darfur region. An end to military offensives and fighting in these areas would bring much needed relief to thousands of Sudanese and create an improved environment for dialogue leading to a political solution.

We urge the Sudan Revolutionary Front to reciprocate by ceasing all military action against the Sudanese Armed Forces and recommit to the cessation of hostilities it declared nearly two months ago. We encourage bot‎h the Government of Sudan and the opposition to work under the auspices of the African Union High-Level Implementation Panel to translate their cessation of hostilities declarations, which must ultimately include the region of Darfur, into a sustainable end to this conflict. A negotiated solution that addresses the key political and security drivers of conflict in all areas of Sudan will be needed in order to establish a lasting peace.

We encourage all sides to commit to allowing unfettered access for humanitarian organizations to deliver lifesaving aid to all Sudanese citizens affected by the conflict.

Distributed by APO (African Press Organization) on behalf of U.S. Department of State.

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Outbreak of Violence in the Central African Republic

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Press Statement

John Kirby
Assistant Secretary and Department Spokesperson, Bureau of Public Affairs

Washington, DC

June 21, 2016

The United States is deeply concerned by a recent increase in violence in the Central African Republic. We underscore the fundamental need for all actors to work together to promote peace and prosperity in a country that has suffered for far too long from instability and conflict. We support the efforts of the Government of the Central African Republic and the international community to restore order and protect civilians.

In addition, we strongly condemn the targeted attacks against humanitarian actors whose sole purpose in the Central African Republic is to provide lifesaving support to the population.

The United States remains a committed partner to the Government of the Central African Republic, the UN mission MINUSCA, and most importantly, the Central African people in efforts to bring the country out of these cycles of conflict.

Distributed by APO (African Press Organization) on behalf of U.S. Department of State.

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Outbreak of Violence in the Central African Republic

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Press Statement

John Kirby
Assistant Secretary and Department Spokesperson, Bureau of Public Affairs

Washington, DC

June 21, 2016

The United States is deeply concerned by a recent increase in violence in the Central African Republic. We underscore the fundamental need for all actors to work together to promote peace and prosperity in a country that has suffered for far too long from instability and conflict. We support the efforts of the Government of the Central African Republic and the international community to restore order and protect civilians.

In addition, we strongly condemn the targeted attacks against humanitarian actors whose sole purpose in the Central African Republic is to provide lifesaving support to the population.

The United States remains a committed partner to the Government of the Central African Republic, the UN mission MINUSCA, and most importantly, the Central African people in efforts to bring the country out of these cycles of conflict.

Distributed by APO (African Press Organization) on behalf of U.S. Department of State.

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Outbreak of Violence in the Central African Republic

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Press Statement

John Kirby
Assistant Secretary and Department Spokesperson, Bureau of Public Affairs

Washington, DC

June 21, 2016

The United States is deeply concerned by a recent increase in violence in the Central African Republic. We underscore the fundamental need for all actors to work together to promote peace and prosperity in a country that has suffered for far too long from instability and conflict. We support the efforts of the Government of the Central African Republic and the international community to restore order and protect civilians.

In addition, we strongly condemn the targeted attacks against humanitarian actors whose sole purpose in the Central African Republic is to provide lifesaving support to the population.

The United States remains a committed partner to the Government of the Central African Republic, the UN mission MINUSCA, and most importantly, the Central African people in efforts to bring the country out of these cycles of conflict.

Distributed by APO (African Press Organization) on behalf of U.S. Department of State.

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Trade delegation from Ghana on food & beverage processing and agricultural inputs concludes visit to the Netherlands

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A 20-member trade delegation from Ghana concluded a week-long visit on Friday to the Netherlands to explore opportunities for business and cooperation in food & beverage processing and agricultural inputs. The mission was led by the Association of Ghana Industries (AGI) and Ghana Chamber of Commerce & Industry (GCCI), supplemented by members of GhanaVeg. GhanaVeg is a programme funded by the Netherlands Embassy with the aim of establishing a sustainable and internationally competitive vegetable sector in Ghana that contributes to inclusive economic growth.

The goal of the trade mission was to promote cooperation, investment and exchange knowledge between Ghanaian and Dutch entrepreneurs, and to build the capacity of AGI and GCCI and its members in these sectors. The Netherlands is the second largest exporter of agri-food worldwide, exporting 65 billion euros worth of vegetables, fruit, flowers, meat and dairy products each year. According to the Ghana Investment Promotion Center (GIPC) the Netherlands was the largest investor in Ghana in the first quarter of 2016.

The delegation visited a wide range of companies in the Netherlands active in different sectors: poultry farming, fruit and vegetable growers, dairy and oil seeds producers. The program was complemented with matchmaking, a visits to the GreenTech fair in Amsterdam and business networking events. The trade mission followed an earlier mission last year with GCCI to the Netherlands on agriculture, infrastructure and textiles.

The Ambassador of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to Ghana, H.E. Hans Docter: “This trade mission is another example of how the Netherlands and Ghana are literally growing together”. The mission complements the Embassy’s efforts on private sector development in Ghana’s agricultural sector. The trade mission was commissioned by the Netherlands Enterprise Agency (RVO) and implemented by the Ghana Netherlands Business & Culture Council (GNBCC), the Netherlands Africa Business Council (NABC) and Dutch employers’ organization FME.

GCCI was established with the prime objective of promoting industrial and commercial interest Ghana and reprents business operators, firms and industries with interests spanning every sector of private enterprise in the country. As a business association, AGI represents over 1200 members and aims to create a supportive and competitive business climate that will make Ghanaian companies internationally competitive.

Distributed by APO (African Press Organization) on behalf of Netherlands Embassy in Accra – Ghana.

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Trade delegation from Ghana on food & beverage processing and agricultural inputs concludes visit to the Netherlands

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A 20-member trade delegation from Ghana concluded a week-long visit on Friday to the Netherlands to explore opportunities for business and cooperation in food & beverage processing and agricultural inputs. The mission was led by the Association of Ghana Industries (AGI) and Ghana Chamber of Commerce & Industry (GCCI), supplemented by members of GhanaVeg. GhanaVeg is a programme funded by the Netherlands Embassy with the aim of establishing a sustainable and internationally competitive vegetable sector in Ghana that contributes to inclusive economic growth.

The goal of the trade mission was to promote cooperation, investment and exchange knowledge between Ghanaian and Dutch entrepreneurs, and to build the capacity of AGI and GCCI and its members in these sectors. The Netherlands is the second largest exporter of agri-food worldwide, exporting 65 billion euros worth of vegetables, fruit, flowers, meat and dairy products each year. According to the Ghana Investment Promotion Center (GIPC) the Netherlands was the largest investor in Ghana in the first quarter of 2016.

The delegation visited a wide range of companies in the Netherlands active in different sectors: poultry farming, fruit and vegetable growers, dairy and oil seeds producers. The program was complemented with matchmaking, a visits to the GreenTech fair in Amsterdam and business networking events. The trade mission followed an earlier mission last year with GCCI to the Netherlands on agriculture, infrastructure and textiles.

The Ambassador of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to Ghana, H.E. Hans Docter: “This trade mission is another example of how the Netherlands and Ghana are literally growing together”. The mission complements the Embassy’s efforts on private sector development in Ghana’s agricultural sector. The trade mission was commissioned by the Netherlands Enterprise Agency (RVO) and implemented by the Ghana Netherlands Business & Culture Council (GNBCC), the Netherlands Africa Business Council (NABC) and Dutch employers’ organization FME.

GCCI was established with the prime objective of promoting industrial and commercial interest Ghana and reprents business operators, firms and industries with interests spanning every sector of private enterprise in the country. As a business association, AGI represents over 1200 members and aims to create a supportive and competitive business climate that will make Ghanaian companies internationally competitive.

Distributed by APO (African Press Organization) on behalf of Netherlands Embassy in Accra – Ghana.

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2016 Global Entrepreneurship Summit Delegate from Angola

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The United States Embassy in Luanda is happy to announce that Mr. José Carlos Fernandes dos Santos, an Angolan entrepreneur, will attend the Global Entrepreneurship Summit (GES) in Palo Alto, California June 22-24. He will be joining more than 700 entrepreneurs from around the world along with investors, speakers, and leaders in the entrepreneurship space.

Mr. Fernandes dos Santos is a founding partner of Touch & Talk S.A., an Angolan call center service provider. His firm employees 200 Angolan nationals that provide inbound and outbound telephonic customer service to callers with inquiries concerning various sectors, including banking, insurance, telecommunications, commerce, health, and services. Additionally, Fernandes dos Santos is a non-executive partner in other for-profit as well as non-profit ventures.

Mr. José Fernandes dos Santos says that his participation in the Global Entrepreneurship Summit will offer a unique opportunity to exchange ideas with other entrepreneurs while representing Angola at this prestigious global summit. Furthermore, he hopes to establish several partnerships that could facilitate greater connectivity with other likeminded young entrepreneurs in Africa and across the globe.

These innovative entrepreneurs will be joined by high-level U.S. Government officials, including President Barack Obama, Secretary of Commerce Penny Pritzker, and Administrator of the Small Business Administration Maria Contreras-Sweet, Administrator of USAID Gayle Smith, and Ambassador at-Large for Global Women’s Issues Catherine Russell, and Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs Richard Stengel.

This Summit will be the 7th installment in a series previously hosted by the United States and the governments of Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, Malaysia, Morocco, and Kenya. In bringing the Summit back to the United States, President Obama highlights his commitment to building bridges that help us tackle global challenges together.

Distributed by APO (African Press Organization) on behalf of United States Embassy in Angola.

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Source:: 2016 Global Entrepreneurship Summit Delegate from Angola

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Jean-Pierre Bemba sentenced by ICC to 18 years in prison for rape, murder and pillage in CAR

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The International Criminal Court (ICC) delivered a landmark sentence today, condemning Jean-Pierre Bemba to 18 years in prison for rape, murder and pillage committed by his troops in the Central African Republic in 2002 and 2003.

FIDH and its member and partner organisations in CAR, the Central African Republic League for Human Rights (LCDH) and the Central African Republic Observatory for Human Rights (OCDH) welcome this recognition of the gravity of the violence inflicted upon victims and their communities, in particular the devastating and inter-generational effects of sexual violence.

“The ICC has finally spoken, loud and clear: Sexual violence in armed conflict cannot go unpunished – its effects devastate entire communities,” stated Karim Lahidi, FIDH President. “Let this sentence be a warning to all other commanders who allow their troops to brutalise women and men, girls and boys: your acts are criminal and you will be punished.”

Mr. Bemba was sentenced to 16 years for the war crime and crime against humanity of murder, 18 years for the war crime and crime against humanity of rape, and 16 years for the war crime of pillaging. The judges found that the acts of rape were perpetrated with particular cruelty and against especially vulnerable victims, thereby contributing to the aggravating circumstances of the crimes. The sentences will be served concurrently, less the time he has spent in pre-trial detention since his arrest in 2008.

This sentence is the longest handed down so far in the ICC’s history, and yet still falls short of the 25 years asked by the Office of the Prosecutor and the maximum sentence requested by the Legal Representative for the more than 5,000 participating victims in this trial.

On 21 March 2016, Jean-Pierre Bemba was found guilty of rape, murder and pillage in his capacity as military commander of the Mouvement de Libération du Congo. The verdict delivered two historically important precedents: first, it is the first case at the ICC to focus heavily on crimes of sexual violence, including rape, as a war crime and a crime against humanity. Crimes of sexual violence against women, men, and children were used as a means to terrorise CAR civilian population. Second, the judges held an accused criminally responsible as a military commander for crimes committed by troops under his control for the first time at the ICC.

Mr. Bemba’s defence has filed to appeal the judgment, and has until 19 September 2016 to file the relevant documentation. Hearings on reparations to the thousands of victims in this case will be scheduled in due course. “Our organisations hope that this important and historic decision, for both victims and international justice, will be confirmed on appeal,” stated Olivier Mangereka, President of LCDH.

“The next step is to address Mr. Bemba’s liability for providing redress and reparation to the thousands of victims of his crimes,” stated Mathias Morouba, President of OCDH. “We urge the ICC to address this issue swiftly, and for States to actively contribute to the Trust Fund for Victims to assist in its reparations mandate.”

FIDH, OCDH and LCDH’s involvement in the case

Since 2002, FIDH and its member and partner organisations have regularly documented the crimes committed in CAR, supporting victims to access justice and the ICC by submitting communications to the ICC Office of the Prosecutor, highlighting the gravity of the crimes and the State’s unwillingness and inability to investigate and prosecute them. FIDH and its member organisations have actively advocated for sexual and gender-based crimes to be taken into particular account, especially during investigations by the Office of the Prosecutor. The elements of evidence submitted by FIDH were relied upon by the Office of the Prosecutor, legal representatives of victims and the judges, including it their judgement, and were ultimately important in proving the crimes and the role of Jean-Pierre Bemba in this case.

In the Prosecution’s submission on sentencing, the FIDH report was also used to indicate Mr. Bemba’s complete disregard for the victims of crimes committed by his troops.

Distributed by APO (African Press Organization) on behalf of International Federation of Human Rights (FIDH).

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CAR: UN expert stresses the urgency of disarming armed groups and restoring the rule of law

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At the end of her seventh visit in Central African Republic, the Independent Expert on the situation of human rights in the Central African Republic, Marie-Thérèse Keita Bocoum, expressed her concern about the threats from armed groups affiliated with Anti-Balaka and ex-Selekas and large-scale banditry to the protection of civilians, natural resources and to the crisis recovery process.

Despite current opportunities to improve the human rights situation, Ms. Keita Bocoum found that, the security situation remained precarious and unpredictable, marked by violence since June 10 in the PK5 district in Bangui and in Ngaoundaye in the west.

“I urge the government in coordination with international forces to implement robust measures to stop the fighting, ensure the imperative of protecting civilians and humanitarian actors, and to assist victims and displaced people,” said Ms. Keita Bocoum. She noted the urgency of disarming armed groups, reforming the security forces and national defense and restoring state authority by an effective presence of the administration throughout the Central African territory.

“During my visit, I met with civil society representatives that expressed concerns at the situation and were expecting the new government to implement key measures, in an inclusive and strategic manner, particularly in the areas of security and justice. I also noted the frustration and the feeling of exclusion among the youth, women and religious communities in Bangui and within the country,” the expert said.

The day after the Government’s policy speech at the National Assembly, Ms. Keita-Bocoum encouraged the authorities to operationalize the road map and the sectorial action plans as soon as possible, with the coordinated support of international partners. She welcomed the authorities’ decision to implement the measures of the Republican Pact adopted at the Bangui Forum last May, including on the fight against impunity, and on the inclusion of individuals and groups who feel marginalized.

The expert also welcomed recent progress towards the establishment of the Special Criminal Court mandated to investigate crimes committed since 2003, including the adoption of the operating budget. She encouraged the authorities to speed up the recruitment process, to start investigations quickly and to establish a protection program for victims and witnesses who will participate in court proceedings.

In terms of ordinary justice, the Independent Expert invited the authorities to validate the roadmap on the justice reform and to implement the first emergency actions, including holding the second session of the Criminal Court.

She stressed the need for non-judicial mechanisms to seek truth and reparation measures in order to shed light on the past, turn the page on the legacy of violence and ensure the guaranty of non-repetition.

During her visit in Bangui and Ndele, Ms. Keita-Bocoum met with several representatives of the new government, including the Prime Minister, ministers of justice, interior, public security and the administration of the territory, social affairs and reconciliation, and environment. She also exchanged with the President of the National Assembly and his executive office, international partners, representatives of civil society and religious authorities.

The Independent Expert also inquired into the allegations of sexual exploitation and abuse against the international forces. She noted the efforts carried out to investigate the allegations, protect the victims and witnesses and prevent from this scourge.

On 28 June at the Human Rights Council in Geneva, Ms. Keita Bocoum will discuss the issue of transitional justice with representatives of the Central African authorities, MINUSCA and civil society organisations.

The UN Independent Expert will submit her final report to the Human Rights Council in September 2016.

Distributed by APO (African Press Organization) on behalf of Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR).

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CAR: UN expert stresses the urgency of disarming armed groups and restoring the rule of law

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At the end of her seventh visit in Central African Republic, the Independent Expert on the situation of human rights in the Central African Republic, Marie-Thérèse Keita Bocoum, expressed her concern about the threats from armed groups affiliated with Anti-Balaka and ex-Selekas and large-scale banditry to the protection of civilians, natural resources and to the crisis recovery process.

Despite current opportunities to improve the human rights situation, Ms. Keita Bocoum found that, the security situation remained precarious and unpredictable, marked by violence since June 10 in the PK5 district in Bangui and in Ngaoundaye in the west.

“I urge the government in coordination with international forces to implement robust measures to stop the fighting, ensure the imperative of protecting civilians and humanitarian actors, and to assist victims and displaced people,” said Ms. Keita Bocoum. She noted the urgency of disarming armed groups, reforming the security forces and national defense and restoring state authority by an effective presence of the administration throughout the Central African territory.

“During my visit, I met with civil society representatives that expressed concerns at the situation and were expecting the new government to implement key measures, in an inclusive and strategic manner, particularly in the areas of security and justice. I also noted the frustration and the feeling of exclusion among the youth, women and religious communities in Bangui and within the country,” the expert said.

The day after the Government’s policy speech at the National Assembly, Ms. Keita-Bocoum encouraged the authorities to operationalize the road map and the sectorial action plans as soon as possible, with the coordinated support of international partners. She welcomed the authorities’ decision to implement the measures of the Republican Pact adopted at the Bangui Forum last May, including on the fight against impunity, and on the inclusion of individuals and groups who feel marginalized.

The expert also welcomed recent progress towards the establishment of the Special Criminal Court mandated to investigate crimes committed since 2003, including the adoption of the operating budget. She encouraged the authorities to speed up the recruitment process, to start investigations quickly and to establish a protection program for victims and witnesses who will participate in court proceedings.

In terms of ordinary justice, the Independent Expert invited the authorities to validate the roadmap on the justice reform and to implement the first emergency actions, including holding the second session of the Criminal Court.

She stressed the need for non-judicial mechanisms to seek truth and reparation measures in order to shed light on the past, turn the page on the legacy of violence and ensure the guaranty of non-repetition.

During her visit in Bangui and Ndele, Ms. Keita-Bocoum met with several representatives of the new government, including the Prime Minister, ministers of justice, interior, public security and the administration of the territory, social affairs and reconciliation, and environment. She also exchanged with the President of the National Assembly and his executive office, international partners, representatives of civil society and religious authorities.

The Independent Expert also inquired into the allegations of sexual exploitation and abuse against the international forces. She noted the efforts carried out to investigate the allegations, protect the victims and witnesses and prevent from this scourge.

On 28 June at the Human Rights Council in Geneva, Ms. Keita Bocoum will discuss the issue of transitional justice with representatives of the Central African authorities, MINUSCA and civil society organisations.

The UN Independent Expert will submit her final report to the Human Rights Council in September 2016.

Distributed by APO (African Press Organization) on behalf of Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR).

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U.S. Presidential Envoy to Counter ISIL to Discuss Counterterrorism Cooperation with Foreign Minister Shoukry

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Today, Special Presidential Envoy for the Global Coalition to Counter ISIL Brett McGurk visited Cairo for meetings with senior Egyptian officials to discuss cooperation in the fight against ISIL.

Special Envoy McGurk met with Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry and Assistant Defense Minister Mohamed El Keshky.

In his meetings, Special Envoy McGurk discussed the status of the coalition’s efforts to degrade and destroy ISIL. He explored opportunities to strengthen cooperation between the United States and Egypt in combatting this threat, and exchanged views on how best to counter the threat posed by ISIL’s regional affiliates.

Distributed by APO (African Press Organization) on behalf of U.S. Embassy – Cairo.

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In Rwanda, Research Finds Cash Assistance For Refugees Boosts Local Economy For Nearby Communities

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A new study conducted in Rwanda has found that humanitarian assistance for refugees has a positive impact on the economies of surrounding host communities, and this impact is significantly greater when refugees receive cash transfers rather than food rations to meet their monthly food needs.

The study was conducted by a team of researchers from the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) and the University of California, Davis. Their findings were just published [link] in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, one of the world’s leading scientific journals.

The study measured the local-community impact of food assistance provided by WFP to Congolese refugees living in three camps in Rwanda. Using hundreds of interviews with Rwandan community members, Congolese refugees and local businesses, researchers created a model of the economies within a 10-kilometre radius of each camp, and then compared the data between camps where refugees received monthly cash allocations, and a camp where refugees continued – at the time – to receive monthly distributions of food.

“Our research found that local communities see very real economic benefits from hosting refugee camps, regardless of the type of food assistance refugees received, but it was clear that cash-based food assistance for refugees translates into a larger boost for the people who live near the camps,” said the study’s lead author, J. Edward Taylor, Professor of Agricultural and Resource Economics at UC Davis.

“Each refugee generates real income for the surrounding community that is larger than the sum of the humanitarian assistance the refugee receives – and if the refugee is receiving cash, the impact of that assistance can nearly double,” he added.

In Kigeme, the camp where refugees were receiving food at the time of the study, researchers found that every dollar’s worth of food for refugees increased real income for the community around Kigeme by US$1.20. In two other camps – Gihembe and Nyabiheke – where refugees received cash transfers each month instead of food, each dollar they received translated into US$1.51 to US$1.95 in the local economy. The study also found a significant increase in the trade between that local 10-kilometre area and the rest of the country.

In the two cash camps, each adult refugee received an annual total of US$120 to US$126 respectively, and the research found that each additional adult refugee in those two camps increased the annual real income in the local area by US$204 and US$253 respectively – equivalent to 63 percent and 96 percent increases created by each refugee in the two camps for the average per capital income of Rwandan households neighbouring on the camps.

“When refugees receive a monthly ration of food supplies, they often sell part of it at below-market prices so they can have a little cash to buy other goods in the market, like fresh fruits or vegetables,” said Ernesto Gonzalez, a co-author of the study who works on cash-related assistance in WFP’s regional bureau in Nairobi. “When refugees receive cash instead, it not only gives them more control and choice over what they eat, but also increases their purchasing power, and therefore increases the strength of their contribution to the local economy.”

The agricultural and market conditions differ somewhat in the three camps studied, so the researchers found that assistance for refugees had a significantly different degree of impact in each area. In general, communities with a more developed agricultural sector benefitted more because farmers were more easily able to sell their produce to meet market demand. After the surveys were conducted last year, WFP switched to providing cash instead of food for refugees in Kigeme camp, and the researchers hope to conduct a follow-up study to measure the impact of that change.

“This research is vital because it is the first time we’ve been able to quantify the degree to which assistance for refugees also equals economic support and development for the communities and nations who host them,” said WFP Executive Director Ertharin Cousin. “Too often, people talk about refugees as a burden or a threat, but this study indicates that hosting refugees can economically benefit a community, and that assistance for refugees makes a concrete difference in peoples’ lives – including those who aren’t directly receiving that assistance.”

Rwanda currently hosts more than 150,000 refugees in five refugee camps. The research was conducted in three camps in southern Rwanda – Gihembe, Kigeme and Nyabiheke.

In Rwanda, and in many other countries, WFP provides more and more assistance in cash alongside the more traditional methods of delivering food supplies. These innovative cash-based transfers – which in different contexts can include physical cash, mobile money, SMS payments or food vouchers – enable WFP to respond faster to the needs of the people it serves.

They bring flexibility and agility to traditional assistance, using the latest technology available. However, providing in-kind food assistance continues to be needed in some contexts, when markets are not functioning or local food supplies are inadequate. WFP’s decision about which form of assistance to use – food, cash, or both — relies very much on the local context and the presence of a well-functioning market.

The study accounts for the economic impact of the assistance that refugees receive. It does not, however, measure a unique feature of WFP’s assistance programmes in Rwanda, which is the extensive amount of food that WFP purchases locally. More than 80 percent of the maize and beans that WFP distributes in Rwanda – including the food provided to refugees in camps that are not yet receiving cash transfers – was grown by Rwandan farmers.

The study published this week in PNAS was based on detailed economic surveys of a random sample of refugee households and a number of formal businesses in each camp, as well as host-country households and businesses within a 10-kilometre radius of each camp to capture the main markets in which refugees transact.

It was carried out in the summer of 2015, and focused in particular on how refugee camp economies interact with surrounding host-country economies and what are the local economic impacts of alternative food aid delivery mechanisms, specifically in-kind versus cash aid distribution.

Distributed by APO (African Press Organization) on behalf of World Food Programme (WFP).

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